Yesterday we were privileged to be able to access the excavation day books of Flinders Petrie from his 1900 season at Abydos. As is often the case with archive work, it is rare to find what you are looking for, but you always find interesting information nonetheless. Petrie was a man of his time, excavating sites in Egypt and sending artefacts to museums in Britain. Petrie’s archives tell the tale of a man who was meticulous about recording – from architectural details to the position of graves; yet his attention to detail appears to have fallen short when it comes to the animal remains he must have encountered. Interspersed with records of artefacts and their archaeological context are his shopping lists, payments made to his excavating staff, and details of which worker was allowed to go to the market on which day! He records many artefacts he discovered and their archaeological context, but no mention could be found for the particular group of remains we were searching for – bird remains from the tomb of Merneith, a regent of Egypt during the 1st Dynasty. This in itself is not disastrous as we know their specific find spot from a museum accession label; but we had hoped to find some information to add weight to the their story and that of their owner. Sadly, this was not to be, so it’s back to the drawing board with the analysis of the faunal material. Watch this space!
Whilst in London we met with our exhibition designer, Andrew Gibbs, to discuss the latest plans. Now that the object list is completed (well, almost!), Andrew has the rather unenviable task of trying to fit all the artefacts we want to display into the cases that we have. We have chosen quite a lot of mummies, archive material, paintings and associated artefacts, all of which help to tell the story of the mummies’ discovery, export and subsequent scientific study. This is certainly not going to be a case of ‘less is more’! We can’t wait to see how he gets on.
The Horizon documentary we filmed in October will be broadcast on Monday 11th May at 9pm on BBC2. Apparently, it was selected from a number of broadcasts to fill a free slot – it’s nice to know that the mummies have such great appeal! I have spoken with the BBC series producer this morning and he said the broadcast will be welcome relief from election fatigue! Let’s hope he’s right!
Two enjoyable evenings have been spent this week scanning animal mummies at the Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital for the Bio Bank project. Tuesday was the turn of the experimental mummies. Our first attempts at experimental mummification are now over 2 years old and appear to be mummifying really well. They have lost muscle mass and have reached a stable weight, indicating that the moisture within the body has dissipated. What’s more, they don’t smell (which is more than can be said of the more recent additions to our mummy family!).
In March, we thawed six bags of disarticulated bird remains donated to us by the Natural History Museum for the purposes of testing how well we are able to identify birds using radiographs. These ‘bags’ were mummified using a pine resin and beeswax mix and wrapped in linen. Our ultimate aim will be to use the scan data to attempt to identify the remains, as we do with the ancient mummies. Using disarticulated and mixed bird species is designed to echo what we see in the ancient mummies. Our friends at the NHM have kept a list of what birds were in each bag so we can check our educated guesses and see just how accurate our identification skills are! Unfortunately, due to the mangled nature of the remains prior to mummification, they have what we call ‘malodour’ i.e. they do smell quite bad.
Walking into a hospital with a massive polystyrene freezer box attracted a few odd stares from members of the public (but that’s nothing new). The radiographers were slightly put off by the malodour of the new mummies, but we managed to get all 16 scanned and radiographed in record time and the mummies were taken back to the fume cupboard.
The mummies we scanned on Thursday were somewhat easier on the eye and the nose. 7 mummies from World Museum Liverpool and 8 (including 3 coffin masks) from West Park Museum, Macclesfield, came to Manchester for the full imaging treatment. They revealed some interesting contents which will be featured in the exhibition later this year.
Over the coming weeks, the data obtained during the two imaging sessions will be analysed and reported back to the museums. We would like to thank Central Manchester Foundation Trust for access to the radiography suite and to the radiographers who give their time and expertise to help with this research.
The start of 2015 has been a very exciting time for the Bio Bank project. With the book safely in the hands of the publishers, our attention has turned to planning the exhibition. Just before Christmas, we were fortunate to be able to employ our designer – Andrew Gibbs from Public Works Office, London – to work with us on turning our doodles in a notepad, into a full-blown touring exhibit. We always knew that this was not going to be an easy task, as our three exhibition venues – Manchester Museum, the Kelvingrove and World Museum Liverpool – vary greatly in size, shape and access routes, so designing one exhibit to fit all three was something of a tall order.
After our initial meeting with Andrew where we discussed the themes of the exhibition and the types of objects that are going to be on display, he went away and drew up some ideas of how the finished ‘show’ might look in the Manchester space. Having a creative mind on the case was instantly refreshing and turned our doodles of how we had envisaged the space looking, into a very different layout and one which Manchester has not adopted before. Conversations via Skype (not easy with three people at one end of the line holding up sheets of A3 paper in front of a webcam!) honed the ideas further and we now believe we have developed a great way of using the limited space at Manchester to its maximum potential.
Yesterday, the whole project team met with Andrew at the Kelvingrove to present the initial plans and to suggest how the design might work in the two larger galleries. Being able to ‘walk the course’ round the Kelvingrove space rather than from drawn plans, enabled Andrew to better visualise how things might look and has led to some quite drastic amendments. This is largely based on the gallery having a separate entrance and exit (which is not the case at Manchester where visitors enter and exit through the same doorway allowing for a cyclical exhibition) and a variety of fire exits which have to be kept clear. One bonus about visiting yesterday was that the temporary gallery is closed presently which allowed us free rein to wander, measure areas, check lighting and exits without getting under visitor’s feet! By the end of the day a clearer plan was forming which maximised Kelvingrove’s assets.
Our next meeting is going to take place at the World Museum Liverpool, our third and final exhibition venue. Although the Liverpool leg of the tour is still 18 months away, it is vital that the exhibit created for Manchester can be moved lock, stock and barrel to Liverpool and be re-installed in their space without it looking dramatically different. In some ways, the fact that Liverpool’s gallery is essentially a large, regular shape, makes this easier as stud walls can be used to partition the gallery into a more management area. Watch this space!
2014 has been a very busy and exciting year for the Bio Bank team and we are looking forward with anticipation to the New Year. Plans for our exhibition are moving apace, with much still to do in the nine months until it opens at the Manchester Museum. The exhibition is our chance to show people what our project is about and to share with visitors some of the results of our research. We have had a lot of fun working on this project so far, working with new museums (and their mummies) along the way. We particularly thank the curatorial and conservation staff at the three host museums (Manchester, Glasgow and Liverpool) for sharing their wisdom, ideas and offering support to exhibition newbies! We have now appointed a designer to work with us on realising our ‘vision’ and we look forward to getting started on the design in January!
The book to accompany the exhibition is still a work in progress although the deadline looms ever closer! It’s been a long hard slog to get to this point, but we hope that it reflects our research and will encourage others to look with fresh eyes at animal mummies in museum collections.
There can be no doubt that 2015 will present research challenges and that there is a year of hard work yet to come. We thank you all for following our progress, commenting on the work and making suggestions on how we can improve going forward. See you next year!
Earlier this year, I was put into contact with a BBC researcher researching potential themes for a new series of documentaries for Horizon. Over the six months or so since this introduction, discussions steered the focus of the programme towards animal mummies (let’s face it, why wouldn’t they want to concentrate on animal mummies, when so much has been done recently on scanning human mummies!?). Tonight, we finished our fourth night of filming for the programme which will air early in 2015.
The programme will cover all aspects of animal mummification, from the sacred animal cemeteries in Egypt where the sheer scale of the practice of votive animal mummification will be portrayed. Filming in the Cairo Museum will showcase some of the better known animal mummies, including cult individuals, pets and victual mummies. Filming also covers demotic papyri in the British Museum, experimental mummification at the University of York and 3d printing in Cardiff.
Research at Manchester will be highlighted in the way we know best – the scientific study of ancient artefacts using modern imaging techniques. At Manchester Museum, the Ancient Worlds gallery played host to a remarkable sight with around 20 animal mummies from the display cases and the stores displayed on rotating platforms and amplified with powerful spot lights. Never before have these mummies been seen in this light and everyone commented on how spectacular the sight was.
The plan had been to film two subsequent sessions at the radiology department of the Manchester Royal Children’s Hospital, however, as is often the way when using a clinical facility, the plan soon went out of the window and the schedule got further and further behind. Obviously, living patients in need of CT scans take precedence over mummified animals, but luck certainly didn’t seem to be on our side! After the two sessions, we still hadn’t filmed any of the ‘back room’ discussions of our scanning, so a further session was scheduled. That final session took place earlier this evening and we are pleased to say that all the shots required by the producer were acquired, despite human trauma patients, computer issues and a misbehaving lift. I don’t envy the job of Jon, the producer, of trying to edit what must amount to hours of footage taken over several weeks and in several countries, into an hour- long documentary. What I am pleased about is that the animal mummies from Manchester Museum will finally get the moment in the spotlight they deserve!
Last week, Steph and I received letters inviting us to take up honorary posts at the Manchester Museum in recognition of our research using their collections. As the largest University museum in the UK, Manchester is keen to work with academics to promote research into all areas of their collection and by establishing long-lasting collaborative relationships. I first worked on the animal mummy collection in 2000 and, since this point, the collection has remained an integral part of research at the KNH Centre. Working alongisde the Curator of Ancient Egypt and the Sudan, Dr. Campbell Price, and the Head of Collections, Henry McGhie, has been a rewarding process for us and we hope that the forthcoming exhibition marks the start of an ongoing collaborative partnership.
As an avid user of social media, I have been slightly dismayed this week by a number of my friends posting Christmas cartoons and captions. Much as I love the festive season, I can’t help feeling slightly perturbed by the speed at which it is approaching! This brings to mind another saying I came across recently which seems to hold more truth the longer I spend in academic research – ‘When you realise that the light at the end of the tunnel is an oncoming train’! I frequently think this motto should be emblazoned across the whiteboard in the office!
September marks the anniversary of our Leverhulme award funding and the time at which a progress report is due to the Trust justifying how money has been spent and what exactly has been achieved over the past year. Whilst writing the report yesterday, I realised that we have actually achieved a lot. The Bio Bank database has grown to 797 from just shy of 600, with a further 150 mummies waiting to be added when time allows (probably early 2015). We have conducted one imaging session with a further two planned for October and two for Spring 2015. We have grown our ‘flock’ of experimental mummies to 10, thanks to donated cadavers from the NHM and friends and family who have collected all manner of critters for the greater good. All in all, we’ve done well.
Perhaps the biggest achievement is the progress that has been made towards our exhibition. When we started the grant, preliminary discussions with the director of Manchester Museum were positive and we knew that if we managed to find funding, the exhibition would go ahead, in some form at least. What we are now faced with is the first touring Manchester exhibition and the first in the world to focus exclusively on votive animal mummies and their scientific study. Incorporating mummies and associated material from over 18 UK collections, this is proving to be no mean feat! Almost a year to the day that I’m writing this, we will be standing at the preview evening for ‘Gifts for the Gods – animal mummies in ancient Egypt’, hopefully smiling at what we have managed to achieve.
This brings me on to why Christmas seems so daunting this year. The exhibition preview evening will be something of a double-edged sword as we will also launch our book on the same day. Seeing our work in print and on sale to the amassed crowd in the Museum shop will no doubt be quite something for everyone who has contributed text and images, and helped to support the project since it started. In order for the book to be released in time, everything has to be with the publisher by New Year’s Day (ha ha). On that note, better get back to it!